The theory of forming “One World Government” under the vision of Xi Jinping – Modern Diplomacy

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The visit of Egyptian President “El-Sisi”, Saudi Crown Prince “Bin Salman”, Sheikh “Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan”, Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi and Deputy Supreme Commander of the UAE Armed Forces, and Prince of Qatar Sheikh “Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani”, to attend the Winter Olympics in China, hosted by the Chinese capital “Beijing” from February 4-20, as a significance cooperative initiative to provide the international support that China needs at the present time in confronting the “politicization of the Winter Olympics in Beijing”, China raised the slogan “Together for a Common Future”, with its “clear political and international significance”, and for promoting the idea of ​​(pluralism in international affairs, and pressing for the establishment of a new, unified world government), under the Chinese leadership and vision of President Comrade “Xi Jinping”, who was awared to mention this point in all of his political discourses internally and externally, focusing on the “common destiny of humanity ”.
   As an Egyptian academic, specializing in Chinese political affairs, I can lay out general features of the form and nature of this “new one world government”, and how Egypt can be during the era of President “El-Sisi” and Arab and African leaders, and even all those developing, marginalized and poor countries, are the “ideal countries” to China, the thought and vision of the comrades in the Communist Party of China, and the focus of the speeches of the Chinese President, Comrade “Xi Jinping”.  As the following:
  The establishment of a “one world government” is a prelude to (the imposition of a single global legal order), meaning that:
“Allowing any citizen of the world to be tried in independent international courts, not a requirement within the borders of his nation-state”
   The refusal of President “El-Sisi”, the Saudi Crown Prince “Mohammed bin Salman”, the ruler of the United Arab Emirates, the UAE Crown Prince of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, Sheikh “Mohammed bin Zayed” and the Qatari Prince, Sheikh “Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani” to the policies of the American and Western politicization of the file hosting  China for the “Winter Olympics”, comes as an affirmation of the importance of this global pattern of transition to the (new world government), and perhaps with a common thought and vision between China and the countries of the region in the face of the “deliberate politicization of all Arab and Chinese issues”.
The content of the unified global discourse at the present time is, based on:
The world post “Covid-19” has crossed the so-called closed borders points and unilateral solutions, as we have already become in the heart of globalization or post-globalization, or according to my previous pproposition of “adapting to the results of globalization”, such as: adapting to the necessity of using advanced technology, Artificial intelligence, smart robots…, etc. Thus, we agree with China in our need for global regulations to enhance economic and global stability, as well as global peace and security.
  Perhaps the organization or grouping and entity of the “European Union”, despite all of those many challenges it is going through, is based on its value as a cornerstone in the (nature and form of the initial appropriate for that one global government regionally), given the nature of the broader value of the global vision and leadership of the nature of the European Union through his management of the many foreign files, especially in the (diplomacy and smart pluralism), and others. Now more than ever, it has become a lesson that cannot be ignored.
  Here, this global government is supposed to be preceded by what is known as: a pattern of a (continental or regional governments), such as: the European Union, the Caribbean Union, and others, and to encourage the repetition of this model in other regions of the world.  Therefore, ideas are put forward about the establishment of (the Union of Latin American States, the Union of Arab States, the Union of Pacific States), and others. This is because (the reorganization of the world into regions and federations is considered a first step towards establishing a world order and imposing a one world government). According to my belief, the proposal of the Chinese President, Comrade “Xi Jinping”, on (the common destiny of humanity), is the ideal premise and the best slogan for the nature of the next stage.
  The formation of this new one world government under Chinese leadership and vision will serve the interests of the developing Arab and African countries, and may be a prelude to the Arab and African countries for obtaining a (permanent representation in the UN Security Council). Here, China, as an essential partner of the Arab countries and the African Union, in  The framework of the “China-Arab and China-Africa Cooperation Forum” may help meet the need of these countries to have their voice heard globally, by following fair and equitable rules globally.
   Also, as an academic, I do not imagine at all that the demand of a large bloc such as the African Union at the present time, is only “to deliver its voice to the world”. It is something that has stopped me analytically during my follow-up to the session of the meeting of the representatives of the African Union countries on Saturday, February 5, 2022, through the request of the African countries in the African Union to meet their desire to collectively contribute to (establishing a continental media center to counter the negative media portrayal of Africa).
  In my opinion, (activating the global government pattern will make the blocs important, such as the Union of Arab States or what is known as the League of Arab States, and the same case for the African Union), and others. All of them are still remaining almost small, and ineffective partners, without a real contribution or meaningful role in the international governance system.
   But the pattern of transition to the form of the world government in the Chinese concept or proposal, will work to “reshape and organize the world order, according to the rules of equity and justice collectively”, which will meet the request of Arab countries within the framework of the League of Arab States and African countries within the framework of the African Union, to meet their desire to (obtaining at least two permanent seats and five non-permanent seats on the United Nations Security Council).
  Egypt and all Arab and developing countries have become similar to the Chinese proposal, especially after the “Covid-19” pandemic, about (the interdependence of the fate of mankind and the welfare of peoples first, and the development of a policy for the required minimum wage), both during the era of President “El-Sisi” and all Arab countries. The developing and African countries, so the political discourse of all Arab leaders, through their participation in the Beijing Winter Olympics and their support for China, is focused on:
  “Turning inward in today’s world is not a viable option, we are simply so interconnected that the problems, challenges, and opportunities we face do not recognize state borders. Efforts to return to the times of independent nation-states will have a heavy price”
  The United Nations took an actual advanced step towards “building a one world government” in 2015, with “the decline in the importance of the sovereignty of the nation state, and the closing of the borders of states to themselves” at the present time in favor of other issues that affect all of humanity, especially issues and topics, such as: “Development  Global issues, climate change and control of epidemics and viruses, such as the Corona pandemic “Covid-19”, and others.  This reinforced the international support for the issuance of a document, entitled: (Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development). This document now includes practical suggestions for “91 issues” under five headings, which are: (Globe, Prosperity, Peace, Sustainable Development Goals), which  all aim to improve the standard and quality of life on the planet Earth.
  We find that the anthropologist, the anthropologist, the thinker Professor “Thomas H. Ericsson”, he may have referred, perhaps indirectly, in his well-known book, entitled: “Ethnicity and Nationalism” to the term “non-racial”, in order to express (a post-globalization human being), whose acquired global features overcome or outperform his original national and ethnic features, as he emphasized during the pages of his interesting book, that:
 “One of the characteristics of the contemporary world is that people appear more similar and more different at the same time due to the forces of modernity and globalization”
  According to Professor  “Thomas H. Ericsson”, this means that people of different geographic, ethnic, religious and cultural backgrounds can communicate more effectively today than ever before.
  The Egyptian researcher goes to analyze and apply Arab and African support to China in the face of American and Western attacks, through the participation of President “El-Sisi” and Saudi Crown Prince “Bin Salman” and Sheikh “Mohammed bin Zayed” Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates, in the opening of the “Winter Olympics” in China, and that (as a gesture to provide the international support that China needs at the present time to promote the idea of ​​pluralism in international affairs), as President “El-Sisi” and the other Arab leaders who have visited China, are trying to provide (an international mobilization that China needs from developing countries to affirm everyone’s adherence to the principles of protecting states, national sovereignty and preventing interference in state affairs,  protecting pluralism and the interests of developing countries, and supporting justice and equity in the world).
   Defending the idea of “​​multipolarity” is the governing framework of the Chinese leadership at the present time. For example, the first foreign international visit was made by Chinese President “Xi Jinping”, in 2017, abroad, in which he visited the United Nations office in Geneva, to deliver a speech. In his speech at the “World Economic Forum” in Davos, Chinese President “Xi Jinping” stressed the importance of (multilateralism in managing world affairs, and China’s interest in effective participation in global governance).
  Everyone must understand that we are currently witnessing a “clash of nations and peoples over interests, not a clash of civilizations or a clash of religions”, as promoted by a number of Western orientalists and foreign thinkers.
  With the importance of emphasizing that “American democracy cannot be applied to peoples by force”, with my introduction to a possibility theory of emerging democracies in the Arab countries, similar to the American concept of democracy, but coupled with the increasing of “intensity of violence and political terrorism in the region, in the face of American policies”.
   My personal observation as an expert in Chinese political affairs, lies in (the success of the content of communist political discourses globally, according to the Chinese concept of working on the welfare of peoples and achieving a well-off life for all), and even the success of the content of those discourses in democratic countries and in the Arab world in favor of China, in contrast to the decline of American democracy discourses globally and regionally.
   For example, we will find that (the idea of ​​a minimum wage, not an American democracy, is the most important for peoples now, whether in Egypt, Saudi Arabia or the Arab Gulf in general, and the beginning of its spread in Europe itself). The leftist populist, and at the present time, the leaders of the Arab political systems are defending the poor of societies by undertaking development initiatives to serve them, especially the issues of the “required minimum wages”.
   The number of members of “left-wing and communist parties” in Europe has increased since 2019, particularly due to the rise of women’s movements and climate advocacy organizations.  The members of these radical left parties also succeeded in winning seats in European local and legislative councils in return for (the decline in the intensity and strength of liberal democratic parties in the American concept of democracy).
   According to my analysis, the concepts of American liberalism and democracy have retreated globally in favor of other issues that are more important and closer to (China’s ideas and reforms internally to mobilize and mobilize the masses in its interest), such as:
  (Strengthening old-age insurance and granting minor orphans, family subsidies, obtaining three weeks of annual vacation, women’s right to vote and suffrage)
  The initiatives presented by the workers’ and people’s parties to the Europeans themselves became a “catalyst” for all the different political forces, even those who disagree with them.  Consequently, the success of the idea of (the minimum wage has become more important than the discourses of American democracy), and the European labor and popular parties succeeded in promoting it, and at the present time, the European left and communist parties are defending the poor in society, health and social security, improving services, and others.  All of them are ideas that are in the interest of the people more than the ideas of American democracy and its aspirations to achieve its own narrow interests at the expense of the weak and marginalized peoples, regions and developing countries.
  The celebration of the (100th Anniversary of Chinese Communism in July 2021) was close to the preoccupations of members of European workers’ and people’s parties. This is despite the right-wing counter-campaign on the effects left by the Maoist movements in Europe, in relation to the ideas of “Mao Zedong”.
   According to my analysis of the current global scene and the idea of ​​polarizing American political systems, governments, alliances and polarizations, this will be an application and confirmation of the theory of “the impartial failure of all countries in the region in the face of the American or Chinese forces”, in confronting China and the United States of America (either with or against) without the (possibility of maneuvering between its parties in the coming period), which is the most important.
   Here, we find that China attaches great importance to the interests of marginalized and developing Arab and African peoples, the most prominent of which are the (Chinese development contributions in favor of Egypt and African countries to build a center for reconstruction and development). With the keenness of the leaders and comrades of the ruling Communist Party in China to expand the scope of Chinese contributions to development and peace for the benefit of the peoples in Egypt, the Arab countries and the weak and marginalized countries of the African continent, especially due to the importance of the Egyptian role for China as a large Arab, African and Islamic developing regional state, as well as its geographical advantages. Therefore, the Chinese keenness on (promoting free trade to enhance trade opportunities and investments for the benefit of China through the Egyptian gateway to the African continent) came to serve the interests of developing, marginalized, poor and African peoples in the first place.
  Also, for example, the inauguration of (Le Pen’s Chinese workshop as a platform for strengthening dialogue between Egyptian and Chinese youth) in November 2020, all of which have become important measures to consolidate and strengthen relations between the Chinese and Egyptian sides, build more competencies, and a platform for exchanging experiences between Chinese and Egyptian youth.
  The organization of virtual discussions between Egyptian and Chinese officials on (means of activating economic development and advancing cooperation in the fields of health, information technology and space) came to reach consensus among all those parties.  As well as, the Chinese support to Egypt to build (an information technology center).
  The symbolic and even strategic importance of the participation of Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Emirates, and Qatar in the “Beijing Winter Olympics”, as they are two of the great regional countries, and between them there is close coordination and cooperation in international and regional affairs in order to protect the common interests of developing countries, protect regional and global peace and stability, and strive to establish (a new, justice and reasonable global political and economic order). There is positive cooperation between them in international and regional forums,  Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Emirates and Qatar have an important role for China in playing a greater role in international and regional affairs.
   The Sino-Egyptian-Saudi-Emirati cooperation within the framework of (the China-Arab Forum, and the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation with regard to Egypt’s membership in it), comes as an important part of the strategic cooperation between the two countries, as well as (the holding of the fourth session of the Ministerial Conference of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation in Egypt), which is what  It will provide a new opportunity for the development of Chinese-Egyptian-Saudi Western relations.  Here, we will find that China has the desire to cooperate in various forms with the countries of the region, Egypt and Saudi Arabia within the framework of the China-Arab Cooperation Forum, in order to work all within the framework of (consolidating the idea of ​​international multipolarity and collective participation in international decision-making).
   Here, I may refer to a completely different and old proposition, but I found it extremely dangerous and important to put it back and consider it again, which is the field of (linking between different scientific disciplines, such as medicine, sports with politics), and others.  It was one of the strangest and deepest phrases that stuck in the mind of the Egyptian researcher for many years, the phrase of the Britain well-known medicine “Patrick Manson”, the founder of tropical medicine, and even the owner of the first huge reference in this specialty, is his famous phrase: “I believe the white race should colonize the world”
   Professor Patrick Manson’s famous phrase was a tool that brought him real fame, given its racist and racial bias, which means the idea of ​​the end of the world and its closure on itself, and the racial bias of the West at the expense of African and poor marginalized peoples. This phrase is a (completely opposite to what I propose today in terms of presenting a new idea, and then discussing the mechanism of its collective application in the Arab and African countries, and it is related to the idea of ​​“establishing the world government,” with a Chinese open-minded vision, compared to any other ideas that are biased to a particular thought or ideology), such as: democracy, liberalism and neoliberalism, and some other such concepts that carry within some “ethnic or divisive ideological bias”, that is, it seeks to divide the world into two kinds of regimes, which are: “democratic regimes and other authoritarian, totalitarian, or a non-democratic regimes”.
   Where we found that according to this new American division of the relationship between the political systems in the world ideologically, which was held by the “Conference of Leaders of Democratic Countries” in December 2021, which actually led to the marginalization and division of the world into two blocs, and all the countries of the Arab region and China went to the bloc of non-democratic countries, with the exception of Iraq, which basically lacks “the elements of true democracy according to the testimony of the Iraqis themselves”. However, the American call for Iraq came as “an American tool for promoting its democracy in the region, given its occupation of Iraq since its entry in 2003, and basically causing chaos in it”.
  The Egyptian researcher found that there is a severe global shortage, according to the previous proposal referred to Dr.Patrick Manson, especially after the spread of the Corona pandemic or “Covid-19”, in all American, Western, Chinese and international references and writings, for what is known as: “imperialist medicine or Political medicine”,  or even media medicine, social, continental and others related to the common political and military aspects analytically, and it is the one that links politics and medicine in the first place, with the exception of the only international book that the Egyptian researcher found, and it fits into my previous idea of ​​Professor “David Arnold” in his book, regarding: “Imperialist Medicine and Local Societies”, which summarized his presentation and practical and applied conclusion in this interesting book, arriving at important recommendations and conclusions, which I can summarize, in:
   “All treatment orders and health battles regarding epidemics, viruses, the increase in diseases and medical intervention during the colonial policy era, were subject to the military operation and the pattern of military intervention in the first place, which allowed the armies and these military medicines working with them, to cross the borders, and take advantage of periods of epidemics and viruses and the increase and spread of certain types of  diseases to suppress movements of rejection and opposition”
   Accordingly, and as a specialist in political science, specifically in the field and path of “comparative political systems”, there is what is scientifically, academically and professionally, known as: “the theory of entanglement or networking among all the different scientific disciplines”. This type of imperialist medicine, means:
  “The existence of medicines in a military capacity are present in poor or marginalized areas under the occupation or tutelage of their countries”
   As is the case during the period of the Britain colonization of Africa and others, where (the view of prejudice or racial superiority) by the category of “military medicines compared to civilian medicines”, may have drawn attention again to return to that point in order to develop a new networking mechanism between (the form of the relationship between political systems and military human medicine, from the category of “military medicines” in colonial, marginal or custodian areas, mainly during the Britain colonial era). The Egyptian researcher discovered, that there is paramount importance internationally to do studies on (the relationship between politics and medicine science), such as: making extensive academic research studies, on:
    (The relationship between the Coronavirus pandemic and the fading of the sovereignty of nation states” or “the relationship between epidemics and viruses and the growth of imperialism”, i.e. intervention, domination and military control mainly over the population and citizens of those affected areas), and others
   Here, it was one of (the most important features of medical intervention in the colonial countries is its connection with the military aspects), not only because many of the medicines and managers of these medical policies were primarily military, or that the only working organs that participated in the medicine of tropical areas were military.
   Accordingly, my new analytical and interpretive proposal and vision has become the current search for (the best types of “governance systems” suitable for all political systems, especially our developing and marginalized Arab and African countries, especially after the ideological American division of the world into democratic and authoritarian non-democratic ones). Which stopped me greatly, to research and study again in all previous writings, about the relationships between medicine and politics, sports and politics, and others. Then trying to apply it to the current situation, especially in light of the sharp global division that we are witnessing today into democratic and non-democratic systems, and so on.
   My new analysis internationally remains the theory of forming (continental or regional Arab and African blocs, unifying efforts between them and China in preparation for the establishment of global governance systems and international frameworks that suit the aspirations of our peoples at the present time) given the similarity of goals among all their parties. Also, proposing the theory of (building alliances and networking and working with other different ethnic, religious and political blocs and gatherings in the world), that would provide more political power for our marginalized peoples, and strengthen Arab pressure mechanisms towards issues of American politicization of events, as happened in the “Beijing Winter Olympics”.  Considering that any restriction or derogation of the civil rights of Arabs, Muslims, Africans, the Chinese and the other marginalized and poor peoples today, may affect the freedoms of others tomorrow, and so on. Therefore, it has become imperative for everyone to unite for the sake of the rules of fairness and global justice, and to pass decisions in favor of the people, by choosing (a global system of government agreed upon by all as a larger entity or bloc to defend the issues and interests of the peoples).
From the Chinese Revolution of 1911 to the exclusion from the UN (1949-1971)
The Taiwan Saga
Associate Professor of Political Science, Faculty of Politics and Economics / Beni Suef University- Egypt. An Expert in Chinese Politics, Sino-Israeli relationships, and Asian affairs- Visiting Senior Researcher at the Centre for Middle Eastern Studies (CMES)/ Lund University, Sweden- Director of the South and East Asia Studies Unit
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From the Chinese Revolution of 1911 to the exclusion from the UN (1949-1971)
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According to the lunar calendar, February 4th is the herald of Spring and also ushers in the 2022 Winter Olympic Games as the world has eyed on the opening ceremony in Beijing, China. It is significant that many political leaders of the world expressed their good wishes or sincere interest in this global sports gathering. For example, Chinese President Xi Jinping announced the solemn commitment made to the world that “China is ready to present a simple, safe and splendid Olympic Games” at the 139th session of the International Olympic Committee (IOC).
Around the globe, we also heard that Russian President Putin who came to Beijing to attend the opening ceremony of the Olympic Games spoke highly of the excellent preparations made by organizers and wished a successful performance and luck to all athletes and participants in the games. As a well-known fan of ice hockey, Putin underscored the athletes’ sporting characters, professional skills and personal abilities to achieve their goals in a fair and tense competition. It was reported that U.S. President Biden also watches the Olympics Games as White House Press Secretary told a regular press briefing. As IOC President Bach declared, “The Beijing Olympics will launch a new era for global winter sport and that everything is in place for a safe and outstanding event.
Why have the Olympic Games, both the summer and the winter, inspired the peoples around the world? The brief answer is that sports can help economic growth and popular health. But the inquiry underneath is that the Olympic sports can facilitate the solidarity of the international community and then serve the world peace and unity particularly when it is under the shadow of the pandemic, economic slowdown and climate changes. Given the Olympic Games’ expansive and complex facilities and huge investment, what legacies of the Winter Olympic Games in Beijing can be taken for the world in the future? Here are three perspectives.
First is related to a nation’s image based upon its power and capabilities. The 2022 Winter Olympic is regarded as the highest quality in history in terms of both hardware and software. It is not an easy job to hold the Olympic Games and much more challenging to organize this Winter Olympic Games during the pandemic time. Despite the scenario, China has vowed to present a successful Winter Olympics and now is hosting it as solemnly promised to the international society. Echoing ancient Chinese philosopher Confucius once said that “it is such a delight to have friends coming from afar”, today the Games’ venues and services have attracted the global attention since around 2900 athletes from four corners of the globe are competing in 109 events of 15 disciplines under seven sports which is supposed to produce more gold medals than any previous Winter Games.
There is no question that all of sports and the logistics are necessarily backed up by substantial financial capacity and science-tech prowess in terms of extensive and solid infrastructure and efficient management. As Hans Morgenthau once put it, any country seeking for prestige is as intrinsic an element of the relations between nations as the desire for prestige is of the relations between individuals. Thus, international and national politics are but different expressions of one and the same social fact. China has made all earnest efforts to keep its promise to the world.
Second touches on a nation’s vision and responsibility. The 2022 Beijing Winter Olympics is an ideal venue for China to transmit its concepts and cultural heritages to the world. This is especially true when President Xi met with leaders from around the world to discuss China’s friendship with them, the fight against COVID-19 and efforts to promote cooperation under the BRI. For China has reiterated that the Olympic vision and concept of peace and solidarity are consistent with the Beijing Winter Olympics slogan “Together for a shared Future.” Generally, China is the largest developing country of the day but also a rapidly rising power in the world, it requires China not only to focus on a sustainable domestic development for next decades, but also to take the necessary commitments to act in line with the UN Charters for defending international justice and fairness. This is one of the major reasons why China is committed to the original Olympic values and firmly opposed to the hostile attempts to politicize sport or use it as a tool of coercion, outrageous competition, and racial and cultural discrimination.
China is proud that Beijing is the first city in Olympic history to host the summer and the winter games as well. Accordingly, Chinese government has steadily and earnestly contributed to an overall preparation for this sports spectacle despite remaining coronavirus restrictions as is the Chinese understanding of Olympic spirit in line with “faster, higher, stronger, and together.” From the inception of holding the Olympic Games six years ago, China has set its aim to create what “the Year of Tiger” (2022) represents in light of the wisdom of its ancient culture, e.g. the Beijing Winter Olympics epitomizes “Transparent, Inclusive, Green, Extraordinary and Refreshing games.” (TIGER)
Third is a testament to the significance of constructing a community of common future for mankind proposed by China and to the greater solidarity of the international community and consolidation of efforts in responding to the global challenges ahead. As the Olympic spirit brings out humanity’s best: “teamwork and solidarity; talent and tolerance”, it is pivotal to understand how China has encouraged the athletes to harness the power of the Olympic spirit to promote a global community of common future. On January 24, China endorsed the UN resolution of “Building a peaceful and better world through sport and the Olympic ideal” which was adopted by consensus and co-sponsored by 173 member states. It calls for observation of the tradition of the Olympic Truce during the period of sports-running. The adoption of the resolution refers to a recognition of the role of sport in building a global capacity to respond to the impact of COVID-19, an opportunity to demonstrate the value of human solidarity, resilience and international cooperation, and an expression of international support for the Beijing Winter Olympics and the International Olympic causes.
Now with the 2022 Winter Olympic Games officially unfolding in Beijing, the world aspires to cooperate with each other in their efforts to use sport as a tool to promote peace, dialogue and reconciliation in areas of conflict during and beyond the period of the Olympic. To attain these ends, China is confident that, with the support of all countries and the guidance of the Olympic spirit, it will be able to present a successful event to the whole world. China will continue champion the faith that all countries, regardless the ideological and institutional differences, should harbor mutual respect, tranquility, tolerance, foresightedness and co-prosperity for our global village.
History tells us that the only way to address the various risks and challenges effectively is “together for a shared future”. Echoing this spirit, U.N. Secretary-General Guterres stressed “the world now needs a successful Winter Olympics to send a clear message to the world that people of any country, ethnicity and religion can rise above differences to achieve solidarity and cooperation.”
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The Chinese awakening was one of the central events in the history of the 20th century history. In the penultimate decade of the 19th century, Western capitalism penetrated China: cheap industrial products damaged local crafts and industries. Social decadence and increasing poverty were worsened by famine and floods in the largely populated rural areas. In the expanding port cities, a revolutionary proletariat and intelligencija were formed. The work of translators such as Yan Fu (1854-1921) brought Chinese intellectuals into contact with modern and contemporary Western thought.
Statesmen such as Kang Youwei (1858-1927) and Liang Qichao (1873-1929) influenced Emperor Guangxu (emperor from 1875 to 1908). His reforms were countered by a reactionary coup d’état on September 21, 1898 by Empress Dowager Cixi (regent from 1861 to-1908), the Emperor’s aunt, which ended the Hundred Days’ Reform. The emperor was put under house arrest; the reformers were executed and the xenophobic Boxer movement was encouraged.
Foreign pressure and domestic political powerlessness led in 1905 to the abolition of the old system based on State examinations for admission to the Civil Service and to the renewal and modernisation of defence led by Gen. Yuan Shikai (1859-1916). Western powers, including Italy, intervened in Chinese internal affairs.
On August 20, 1905, doctor Sun Zhongshan (Sun Yat-sen, 1866-1925) founded – in Tokyo – the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance (Tongmenghui), a movement that in its programme envisaged the three principles of the people: unity of the people (nationalism); rights of the people (democracy); welfare of the people (socialism). It was spread by the Overseas Chinese, by students and missionary schools, and extended throughout the motherland. On October 10, 1911, the right set of conditions turned a revolt in Wuchang into the Chinese Revolution. To make up for the losses, the Qing court responded positively to a series of demands to turn the authoritarian imperial rule into a constitutional monarchy. Yuan Shikai was appointed as the new Prime Minister, but before he was able to regain the areas conquered by the revolutionaries, the provinces began to declare their allegiance to the ARC. At the time of the uprising Sun Zhongshan was in the United States on a fundraising trip. He went first to London and then to Paris to ensure that neither country gave financial or military support to the government of the Manchurian Qing dynasty (1644-1912). Sun Zhongshan returned to China shortly afterwards. Meanwhile the revolutionaries had conquered Nanking, the former capital of the Chinese Ming dynasty (1368-1644).
Delegates from seventeen provinces arrived for the first National Assembly, which elected Sun Zhongshan as provisional President on November 29, 1911. On January 1, 1912, he proclaimed the Republic of China. Heaven had withdrawn the mandate from the Qing.
The international reaction to the revolution was cautious. During the uprising the countries with investment in China remained neutral, although anxious to protect the rights of the unfair treaties achieved with the Qing through the First and Second Opium Wars. The United States, however, was largely supportive of the republican project, and in 1913, Washington was among the first capitals to establish full diplomatic relations with the new Republic. The United Kingdom, the Japanese and the Russian Empires, etc. followed suit.
Sun telegraphed Yuan Shikai, promising that if he accepted the establishment of the Republic, he would be appointed as President. This was done to win the support of the military for the cause of national unity. Yuan Shikai accepted, thus forcing the court to give him the authority to form a republican government. On February 12, 1912 he acknowledged the abdication of the six-year old emperor Pu Yi (later emperor of the pro-Japanese puppet State of Manchukuo from 1934 to 1945). We will see later why Yuan needed the so-called “continuous permission”.
Meanwhile Outer Mongolia (the present State) had declared its independence (July 1911) – and Tibet, as well (1912) – recognised through the iniquitous Simla Convention (July 3, 1914). Although the new government created the Republic, it did not unify the country under its control. The withdrawal of the Qing led to a power vacuum in some regions. On August 25, 1912 Sun Zhongshan and Song Jiaoren (born in 1882) founded the Guomindang (GMD), the Chinese Nationalist Party derived from the ARC. In the December 1912-January 1913 elections (in which 5% of the Chinese population voted) the GMD won 45.06% of the seats in the National Assembly.
Yuan Shikai probably had Song Jiaoren assassinated on March 22, 1913. Later, relying on 223 AN members out of 870 (who had created the Progressive Party, Jinbudang), he dismissed the GMD provincial governors or forced them to swear allegiance. This was followed by the Second Revolution (July-September 1913), which was suppressed by the government.
On November 20, 1915, the end of the Republic of China and the return of the Empire was declared. On December 12, 1915, Yuan proclaimed himself emperor with the name Hongxian. As early as December 25, 1915, public disapproval and people’s aversion to the monarchy were expressed. Japan withdrew its support for the Yuan prince. Some provinces, under the leadership of the Governor of Yunnan, Cai E (1882-1916), rebelled against the new emperor, who renounced the swearing-in ceremony and relinquished his title on March 22, 1916. He died on June 6, 1916.
China entered World War I on August 14, 1917, declaring war on Germany, and immediately occupied Qingdao, the largest German naval base abroad, located on the Shandong Peninsula. Yuan Shikai’s death worsened the Chinese crisis, continuing the process of territorial fragmentation. The issue of provincial governors being military and directly controlling their own armies laid the foundations for the period of warlords. Such “feudal lords” often administered their territories without recognising the incumbent government. The numerous generals in the Northern army tried to bring the Beijing government under their aegis. On the other hand, the interference of the States – which had the government finances in their own hands, directly collecting customs duties and gradually granting them to the recognised “legitimate” government after deducting allowances and interest – worsened the bloody internal conflicts. Each power wished to impose its authority on China to the detriment of other foreigners, and for that reason supported one or another of the different warlords.
When the Versailles Conference (January 18, 1919 – January 21, 1920) assigned the German bases in Shandong to Japan, with the backing of the Beijing government, intellectual, literary and political currents called a series of protests throughout the country on May 4, 1919, in which the owners of small and medium-sized enterprises, as well as blue collar workers, participated. The organisers referred to the New Culture Movement, which had originated in 1915 and developed at the Peking University, where the importance of science and democracy was extolled, thus rejecting China’s traditional culture. According to Chinese historiography, the May Fourth Movement marked the beginning of contemporary history. Events followed one another swiftly. Sun Zhongshan established the military government in Guangzhou (Canton, 1921-25). After his death, the national government later moved to Wuhan (1925-27), under the leadership of the rising star Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek, 1887-1975).
The Communist Party of China (CPC) was founded on July 1, 1921. In 1924 the good relations between the Soviet Union and the GMD led the CPC to create a united front with the GMD. In 1926 Jiang Jieshi launched a successful expedition against the Northern warlords. In 1927 he moved his government to Nanking, broke the alliance with the CPC, and bloodily suppressed the Communists with the Shanghai massacre and the Guangzhou peasant revolts. In 1928 he reunified most of the country. Jiang Jieshi centralised the five powers (the executive, legislative, judiciary, investigation and control ones) into a State Council under his leadership. On August 1, 1927, the CPC founded the Red Army as a form of defence against the GMD attacks.
In 1931 there was the period of the so-called “formative government”: with the Anglo-US support, foreign concessions were regained; extraterritoriality privileges were abolished and domestic duties were eliminated; foreign concessions in Shanghai and foreign control of port duties remained. The government turned into a military dictatorship.
On September 19, 1931 Japan attacked Manchuria. On November 7 of the same year the CPC established the Chinese Soviet Republic in Jiangxi, with Mao Zedong (1893-1976) as Prime Minister. In December 1930 civil war had actually begun. Five annihilations campaigns against the Communists under Jiang Jieshi ended in October 1933 with the Reds being crushed. From October 1934 until the same month of the following year, the Reds launched the legendary Long March of Ten Thousand Li (Changzheng) to move from the then indefensible Jiangxi to Shaanxi. Twelve thousand impervious kilometres covered by the Red Army (later the People’s Liberation Army). One hundred thousand left as against 400,000 and only 20,000 reached their destination.
In 1936 Jiang Jieshi reached the height of his power, controlling 11 of China’s 18 provinces. But on July 7 the Japanese attacked China. In 1937 there was a new agreement between communists and nationalists to combat Japan, the Rising Sun. The GMD government moved from Nanking to Chongqing. Later, once it had fallen into the Japanese’s hands, the collaborationist government of Wang Jingwei (1883-1944), a former GMD member, came to life there. In 1941, Jiang Jieshi – being sure of Japan’s defeat due the entry of his US allies into the war – once again broke the agreement with the communists. In China there were three wars at the same time: the GMD against the CPC, and both separately against the occupiers and the puppet government. Japan surrendered and capitulated on September 9, 1945.
After the end of the Japanese occupation, the Chinese economy was in a very bad state. With the US support, the GMD troops occupied the large cities, but were unable to maintain order. On August 14, 1945 a treaty of friendship and alliance was signed with the Soviet Union, which retained, inter alia, Lushunko (Port Arthur, which was under Soviet-Japanese administration until 1953 and later returned to the People’s Republic of China). Negotiations between nationalists and communists for a coalition government failed. There was renewed fighting between the two factions.
In 1947 the civil war escalated. With the US help, the nationalists held power in vast territories, but the communist troops achieved new successes.
On the eve of May 1, 1948, the CPC’s Central Committee issued an appeal to convene a new conference after the failure of the previous one. Indeed, on October 10, 1945 – in the aftermath of Japan’s defeat – Mao Zedong and Jiang Jieshi had met and agreed on the country’s reconstruction and on convening a consultative political conference. It opened on January 10, 1946 and saw the participation of seven CPC delegates, nine from the GMD, nine from the Democratic League, five from the Youth Party and nine independents.
After reaching the agreement of February 25, 1946 the Conference stalled in July when Jiang Jieshi launched a large-scale offensive against the communist territories with 218 brigades: the real start of further civil war. In December 1947, however, Mao announced that 640,000 nationalist soldiers had been killed or wounded and over a million had laid down their arms.
The appeal of April 30, 1948 was appreciated and immediately echoed by democratic parties, people’s organisations, non-movement personalities and Oveseas Chinese.
On May 5, there were greetings from leaders of various democratic parties including Li Jishen (1885-1959) and He Xiangning (1879-1972) of the GMD Revolutionary Committee – a movement distinct from the GMD as such (the former was its President). Then Shen Junru (1875-1963) and Zhang Bojun (1895-1969) of the Democratic League leadership; Ma Xulun (1885-1970) and Wang Shaoao (1888-1970) of the Chinese Association for the Promotion of Democracy; Chen Qiyou (1892-1970) of the Justice Party; Peng Zemin (1877-1956) of the Chinese Peasants’ and Workers’ Democratic Party; Li Zhangda (1890-1953) of the National Salvation Association; Cai Tingkai (1892-1968) of the GMD Democracy Promotion Committee, and Tan Pingshan (1886-1956) of the Sanminzhuyi Comrades’ Federation (the Three Principles of the People).
Also Guo Moruo (1892-1978), a person with no party affiliation, sent a joint telegram from Xianggang (Hong Kong) to the CPC’s Central Committee, Mao Zedong and the entire nation supporting the communists’ call.
Meanwhile, the Association for the Promotion of Democracy and the Jiu San Society (September 3), which had established their headquarters in areas under the GMD rule, held secret meetings of their central committees to welcome the CPC document.
Mao Dun (1896-1981), Hu Yuzhi (1896-1986), Liu Yazi (1887-1958), Zhu Yunshan (1887-1981) and 120 democrats issued a joint communiqué expressing their agreement with the CPC position. In addition, 55 leaders of the democratic parties and people from outside the party issued joint comments on China’s political situation, stating:
“[…] during the People’s Liberation War, we are willing to contribute and cooperate in designing programs under the CPC’s leadership, expecting to promote the quick success of the Chinese People’s Democratic Revolution for the forthcoming foundation of an independent, free, peaceful and happy New China.”
The Conference held its first plenary session in Beijing from 21 to 30 September 1949. A total of 622 representatives attended. They were sent by the CPC, by democratic parties, independent personalities; mass and regional organisations, the People’s Liberation Army, ethnic minorities, Overseas Chinese, patriotic democrats and religious groups.
The first session exercised the functions of a fully-fledged parliamentary, legislative and constitutional Assembly of the nascent State until 1954, when the first National People’s Congress was elected. The CPC Central Committee adopted the Provisional Constitution (the CPCCC Common Programme), the CPCCC Organic Law and the Organic Law of the Central People’s Government. It chose Beijing as the capital of the country. It established the five-star red flag (Wu Xing Hong Qi) as the national flag: red stood for the revolution; the big star stood for the CPC; the other stars stood for the social classes: workers, peasants, lower middle class and capitalists (national middle class). It adopted the March of the Volunteers (Yiyongjun Jinxingqu) as the national anthem and opted for the Gregorian calendar. The session elected the CPCCC National Committee and the State Central People’s Government Council. On October 1 – through Mao, the NC Chairman – it proclaimed the People’s Republic of China.
The GMD government and army fled to Taiwan. Jiang Jieshi was defeated precisely because he was unable to offer his country a future of independence from the imperialist powers to which he was linked, starting with the United States.
When Heaven withdrew the mandate also from the bourgeois Republic, it was a cyclical change in universal history, comparable only to 1789 and 1917. The manoeuvres of the People’s Republic’s enemies later excluded eight hundred and forty-one million Chinese from the United Nations until 1971.
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Authors: Amit Kumar & Dr. Katja Banik
The storm that has been gathering over the South China Sea in recent years has now reached Taiwan’s shores. The question is whether Taiwan, alone or with the backing of other democracies, will be able to withstand China’s strong will for reunification. The relations between China, Taiwan and the United States is at its lowest point in the region’s history. For China’s president, Xi Jinping, Taiwan is now the last bastion of resistance in his quest for national rejuvenation. Is the reunification of Taiwan with China – like German reunification – the key question for the Chinese people?
Endangered peace
With unprecedented numbers of planes breaching its air defense identification zone (ADIZ), Taiwan expressed alarm over China’s rising military intimidation as an act undermining regional peace. The ADIZ overlaps with China’s air defense identification region. The US opposes China’s “provocative” behavior and is committed to protecting Taiwan, which China claims as its own territory, and helping it defend itself against China. The US-China relationship is severely strained, and neither country can mediate on the Taiwan issue since, for China, the Taiwan question is a purely national matter According to Chinese observers, the dialogue between Xi and Biden is limited due to the differences between the countries over Taiwan, which makes Taiwan one of the key deciding factors for world leaders seeking to establish their hegemony and credibility (value of their words).
Biden’s pledge to defend Taiwan if the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) attacks the island state demonstrates the US commitment to and the strategic importance of Taiwan. Meanwhile, Beijing has warned that the US’s intervention in Taiwan poses “game-changing and significant threats.” While some experts foresee rising tensions between China and Taiwan in the coming years, the main conflict could be between the US and China, with Taiwan serving as a litmus test for a restructuring of the global order.
While the US supports Taiwan’s pro-independence administration, China’s expanding influence is endangering the country’s sovereignty. In 2018, Xi stated that “Taiwan would face the wrath of history” if it chose to secede. In this perilous circumstance, and with Xi under pressure to deliver on his promise, China could have no choice but to annex Taiwan – even if it provokes a major conflict with the US.  In response to China’s aggression, Japan’s defense minister cited Russia’s annexation of Crimea as an example of how quickly China may move in. Former Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott has also warned that a full-scale invasion by China is highly likely.
While the rest of the world is observing the situation in the South China Sea and waiting to see what happens to Taiwan, the ramifications are far-reaching, since Taiwan has emerged as one of the geopolitical theatres which is masking a significant worldwide transformation towards a new global governance with more authoritarian structures.
Afghanistan today – Taiwan tomorrow?
The United States’ disastrous withdrawal from Afghanistan has created a power vacuum in the region, allowing China to extend its agenda and grand strategy. Critics argue that withdrawal from Afghanistan has dealt American credibility a staggering blow. Since isolating its friends in Afghanistan, the United States’ commitment has been called into doubt, as has its ability to demonstrate its trustworthiness. Without wasting time, Beijing lashed out against Taiwan, claiming that the US will desert it in a crisis due to its shattered credibility: Afghanistan today, Taiwan tomorrow! Globally, both national players along with globally active companies and non-governmental players like lobbyists are all putting pressure on today’s liberal international world order.
The increase in Islamic extremism, authoritarian governments and military coups has posed a challenge to democratic principles and ideals, underlining the United States’ retreat from liberal international standards. The reputation, strength and influence that the United States possessed across the whole spectrum of international affairs – bilateral, multilateral and international institutions such as the United Nations, World Trade Organization and World Health Organization – are on the decline. The old-world order is at an end – the future is still in the stars.
In terms of politics and diplomacy, the United States’ once-vast sphere of influence is rapidly dwindling. Due to strong economic relations, Latin America, Africa and the Middle East are closer to China than the United States. The EU and its member states as well as many Asian nations that were formerly considered US allies are now preferring to remain neutral in the US-China confrontation. Over the previous two decades, the United States’ engagement with Middle Eastern countries has earned it a negative reputation. Many post-Cold War conflicts initiated by the United States have been blamed on democracy.
Both the United States and democracy appear to be dwindling in relevance today. Should the United States fail to protect Taiwan if it is invaded by China, the United States will lose its status as the defender of the democratic world, and democracy will be perceived as incapable of self-defense. All other developing and developed nations will look to China for moral and material assistance, as well as the prospect of a restructured world order led by the Communist Party of China. This will set in motion a chain reaction that will lead to the establishment of authoritarian rule over democracy.
The US is fully cognizant that the stakes in terms of risk and reward are at an all-time high.
For China, what is at stake is its newly conceived ambition. For Xi, his tenure as “lifetime” president is at stake. To considerable surprise, the 6th Plenum of the 19th CCP Congress did not endorse Xi Jinping’s life tenure, referring to him instead as the “Core of the Leadership.” China has had a meteoric ascent in global politics and is tempted to establish itself as a Middle Kingdom. China’s emergence as a competitor to the United States has undermined the latter’s position, as the countries’ codependency has decreased, and the world now views China as a genuine rival to the US. China’s governance model is also under rigorous study, as its miraculous rise, poverty upliftment and standard of living have astounded the world. The COVID pandemic, however, has tarnished China’s international reputation, but the country has quickly made up for it through vaccine diplomacy. While democracy is fading, Chinese authoritarianism is gaining popularity beyond the country’s borders.
On the economic front, China is outpacing US investments in numerous locations throughout the world, most crucially, the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). China’s investments are free of any strings and entail no direct engagement in domestic politics. With growing financial clout, Beijing has been able to expand its influence by strategically placing its key officials in influential agencies and international organizations, such as UNCTAD, WTO and WHO. China has also replaced the US as the top trading partner of its key allies. A hidden truth is global capitalism is not China’s enemy but its ally. Without the prosperity and stability delivered by global trade and investments, Beijing would not be in the position to modernize its military or use its investment and foreign aid to expand its influence overseas. Beijing’s geographical assets are at an all-time high. From defense to technology, it is a frontrunner in critical technical components and is making progress in other essential civilian and military technology. Further, with its dual-circulation strategy, China is reducing its dependency to a strict minimum. Thus, there is no sphere in which the United States is unchallenged.
China understands that Taiwan is a zero-sum game. If China succeeds in gaining control of Taiwan, its influence and might would grow exponentially, while the United States’ sphere and strength will shrink proportionally. China will be viewed as a more credible and capable global actor which delivers on its promises. This will pave the way for China to rewire the international system to reflect Chinese characteristics and values. China is aware that the United States stands between it and the Middle Kingdom’s splendor. Hence, Taiwan is a key that will open the door for China to the Pacific trade route, realizing the Middle Kingdom’s vision and paving the way for Xi’s “lifetime” presidency.
Modus operandi
To demonstrate its credibility and sustain the status quo in the region, the United States’ role in safeguarding Taiwan is becoming increasingly vital.
As a result, the US is prepared to counter China’s aggressiveness on all fronts. Apart from the trilateral military alliance AUKUS, it staged one of the largest military drills since the Cold War with Japan, Australia and the United Kingdom. Taiwan has confirmed the training of American soldiers alongside Taiwanese forces on its soil, reiterating the US commitment to Taiwan. Along with increasing Taiwan’s modern combat capabilities, the US is also upgrading the military forces of its allies, such as Japan and Australia, who would be called upon to defend Taiwan in a conflict. Finally, a bill has also been introduced in the US Congress to provide $2 billion in military funding until 2032.
The United States seems to be lobbying for Taiwan to be admitted to the United Nations through its broad network of allies. Washington is forming an alliance with democratic nations to condemn Chinese aggression, generate global support and boost their relationship with Taiwan. This prompted the European Union’s first official visit to Taiwan, where a delegation communicated the message “You’re not alone” and offered to integrate Taiwan into the global system, which would ease tensions rather than fuel them. Furthermore, Taiwan was invited to join more than 100 other countries in the Biden administration’s “Summit for Democracy” (December 9-10, 2021). The invitation was a significant victory for Taipei at a time when Beijing is intensifying its drive to keep Taiwan out of international organizations. To keep up with Washington’s lead, New Delhi is strengthening its relations with Taipei by negotiating agreements to create semiconductor manufacturing plants in South Asia.
China sees US meddling as an attempt to westernize the region and destabilize the communist regime. Beijing is utilizing every tool at its disposal to subdue Taiwan, from military threats and intelligence theft to economic pressure and disinformation warfare. Experts argue that Taipei’s recent ADIZ invasion constituted electronic warfare. According to Taiwan’s National Defense Report 2021, China’s grey-zone threats include cyberwarfare and cognitive warfare in an attempt to conquer Taiwan without actual combat. China is trying to prevent any foreign military action within the first island chain. It is increasing military activity on Taiwan’s Pacific coast to sever links between the United States and Japan. If Taiwan loses its ties to the United States, it will collapse. As a result, even if the United States has a more capable military than China, we should not dismiss China’s strategies to seize Taiwan.
Xi Jinping has repeatedly warned the United States against ganging up on China, and military maneuvers, claiming that they would jeopardize the peace and stability of the Taiwan Straits. Beijing has also cautioned the United States to keep away from Taiwan, which it regards as part of mainland China. Beijing’s diplomatic dexterity is strengthening its strategic ties with Russia, Pakistan and Iran, which will advocate and stand up for China’s agenda. Without a doubt, Beijing will modify its tactics every day to invade Taiwan without having to go to war.
Outlook
Taiwan is still an integral part of the United States’ commitment to safeguarding democracy and sovereignty. But for how long and at what price?
Taiwan is also seen as an inalienable part of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), which dislikes Taiwan’s democratic nature. However, Taiwan’s president seized on the country’s impassioned feelings and said she would do everything in her power to protect the country’s freedom and democratic way of life. Bearing that in mind, Taiwan is unquestionably on the verge of a formal declaration of independence. Taiwan’s independence might have a major influence on Chinese stability, particularly in Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang. The South China Sea crisis has now boiled down to the question of Taiwan’s status in the world: Is it an independent country or an extension of mainland China? The progression of events in determining this question would eventually unleash one of the profoundest global transformations the world has ever seen.
The Taiwan saga could have three potential outcomes: First, China and the US go to war, which is very improbable since China understands it cannot squarely confront the US because defeat is certain. In this event, the United States will re-establish its hegemony and credibility. The world will once again look to the United States and its liberal institutional ideals, and China will suffer a significant setback as a rising force.
Second, China delves deep into Sun Tzu’s wisdom to devise strategies, ploys and shrewd maneuvers to divert the attention of the United States and its allies – in order to take over Taiwan right under their noses, which will be tough but not impossible. If China is successful in doing so, it will deal a significant blow to the US’s reputation and credibility. It will also establish itself as a more credible partner than the US, eventually causing the world to shift East rather than West – until the next superpower competition.
Third, China, the United States and Taiwan reach an amicable agreement on Taiwan’s position. The solution would ideally safeguard the US’s reputation, retain Taiwan’s independence and democratic way of life, and fulfil Chinese authorities’ demands that Taiwan not declare itself fully independent of China. If such a solution were found, it would be a win-win situation for all three parties. However, even in this instance, China would declare victory by leveraging its propaganda apparatus to best effect.
Regardless of the outcome of the Taiwan question, the world is clearly in a process of deep transformation. It is not up to the world’s leaders, not up to China, the US, Taiwan, or the EU to decide about a new world order.
It is up to us – to the peoples of the earth, to every single person – to take responsibility, to accept the preciousness of our own cultural heritage and thus make the world a better and more human place, one in which everyone can live in the spirit of peace and sovereignty.
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